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水的硬度


水的總硬度指水中鈣、鎂離子的總濃度,其中包括碳酸鹽硬度(即通過加熱能以碳酸鹽形式沉淀下來的鈣、鎂離子,故又叫暫時硬度)和非碳酸鹽硬度(即加熱后不能沉淀下來的那部分鈣、鎂離子,又稱**硬度)。

碳酸鹽硬度

碳酸鹽硬度:主要是由鈣、鎂的碳酸氫鹽[Ca(HCO3)2、Mg(HCO3)2]所形成的硬度,還有少量的碳酸鹽硬度。碳酸氫鹽硬度經加熱之后分解成沉淀物從水中除去,故亦稱為暫時硬度。

非碳酸鹽硬度

非碳酸鹽硬度:主要是由鈣鎂的硫酸鹽、氯化物和硝酸鹽等鹽類所形成的硬度。這類硬度不能用加熱分解的方法除去,故也稱為**硬度,如CaSO4、MgSO4、CaCl2、MgCl2、Ca(NO3)2、Mg(NO3)2等。

碳酸鹽硬度和非碳酸鹽硬度之和稱為總硬度;水中Ca2+的含量稱為鈣硬度;水中Mg2+的含量稱為鎂硬度;當水的總硬度小于總堿度時,它們之差,稱為負硬度。

以碳酸鈣濃度表示的硬度大致分為:

0~75mg/L 極軟水

75~150mg/L 軟水

150~300mg/L 中硬水

00~450mg/L 硬水

450~700mg/L 高硬水

700~1000mg/L 超高硬水

>1000mg/L 特硬水



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